There might be the case when you need to upgrade or downgrade the MariaDB (MySQL) package on your VPS. For example, when currently installed version on your server is not supported by your website's CMS.
As an example, in the steps below we will cover a downgrade from MariaDB 10.5 to MariaDB 10.4. You can perform an upgrade or downgrade to any other available version by replacing the version number in the SSH commands.
Step 1 - Back Up Your Databases
First, connect to your server using SSH and check the MySQL password using the following command:
This will display the content of the .db_password file. Take note of it. Next, create a fresh database backup:
mysqldump -u root -p --all-databases > databasedump.sql
When asked to enter the password, use the one you retrieved from the .db_password file.
Step 2 - Remove the Current MariaDB Version
After creating a backup, you can safely remove the MariaDB version.
1. Stop the MariaDB service:
systemctl stop mariadb
2. Uninstall MariaDB:
yum remove mariadb mariadb-server
3. Remove data and configuration files (optional):
rm -rf /etc/my.cnf
rm -rf /var/lib/mysql
Step 3 - Install the Required MariaDB Version
Now, follow these steps to install the upgraded/downgraded version:
1. Open the file using a text editor such as vim or nano:
2. Update the file to the following content:
name = MariaDB
baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.4/centos7-amd64
3. Update the yum cache index:
yum makecache fast
4. Install the new version:
yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client
5. Enable and start MariaDB:
systemctl enable mariadb
systemctl start mariadb
6. Secure MariaDB:
Follow the prompts to set a root password and secure the installation. Note that this is the password used to log in to the MariaDB server as a root user.
mysql --version command to verify that the version of MariaDB has changed:
Step 4 - Import Your Databases
Finally, import your database backup:
mysql -u root -p root < databasedump.sql
And restart MariaDB:
systemctl restart mariadb
That's it, your MariaDB version is successfully updated and your databases restored.